Hydroponics is the technology of growing plants in a nutrient solution composed of water and fertilizer. The word hydroponics is derived from two Greek words: 'hydro' meaning water and 'ponos' meaning labor. Hydroponic production can be with or without the use of an artificial medium such as perlite, sand, gravel, peat, or sawdust) to provide mechanical support.

Many consider hydroponics as being a new production method, however history shows that some of the earliest recordings of hydroponics were actually in the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, where plants were grown in a steady stream of water. 

Hydroponic Pros Hydroponic Cons
More efficient use of water and fertilizers Set up cost can be high
No soil is required Skill and knowledge are necessary to operate at optimum production
Space requirements and growing time are lessened Disease and pest can spread quickly to plants using shared nutrient solutions
Heavy work is reduced Not all plants are suitable for hydroponics
Pest and disease problems can be better controlled without harsh chemicals Plants have quick reactions to both good and bad conditions
Nutrients are recyclable  
Weed problems are lessened  
Crop rotation is not necessary  

History of Hydroponics

The term hydroponics was first used in the late 1920's by a professor in California named Dr. W.F. Gericke. He developed a technique, pioneered by German scientists Sachs in 1860 and Knop between 1861 and 1865, into a commercial means of plant production. Sachs and Knop were among a number of scientists during the 19th century to research plant nutrition and develop a chemical formula to overcome major set backs in previous attempts at hydroponics.

Hydroponic technologies were further developed throughout the 1930's and 40's in North America, Europe, and Japan due to the inspirations of Dr. Gericke's work.

During WW II, the United States Army used hydroponics to grow fresh produce for troops stationed on infertile Pacific islands. In America, Britain, Europe, Africa, and Asia, there were viable commercial farms operating by the 1950's. Today, hydroponics are used in our urban areas where high land costs have driven out traditional agriculture, to provide locally grown high-value specialty crops such as fresh salad greens, herbs and cut flowers.